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Crashing a market involves selling large amounts of any material or trade commodity and buying it back at the prices reduced up to 40%. Previously, the best commodity to use for crashing a market was Cobalt. At ~200 units per item it was valuable enough, and every Space station sold it. This is important, because you can only buy back the commodity that a current terminal sells. The big advantage of Cobalt was that you could mine sufficient amounts to start market crashing, from caves on your starting planet. 2,000 is the minimum amount recommended, although you will have some gains from as little as 1,000. Cobalt is no longer the best mineral to use for this method; but many other raw materials (or even items) can work via the same method.
After the Star system market is crashed, you may be able to buy additional amounts of your chosen resource from NPCs landing in the Space Station. By quickly jumping between Space stations and crashing the market, it is possible to earn up to 4 billion units in less than 24 hours of game time, and completely upgrade your Exosuit storage at the same time. Adding other high value materials (Gold, Silver, Platinum, lonised Cobalt, and Chlorine) to your inventory can further increase the profits, but these can only be sold at the station that already sells them, if you want this method to work.
Wiring Looms were also a very popular market crashing commodity, until in Synthesis two prices were introduced: 25,000 Units for selling, and 50,000 Units for buying, which requires a very large amount of them to crash the market to a profitable level (300-400), which in turn requires at least 15M initial investment, and at least 2 purchases from tier 3 economies. Still, it is a useful commodity in Survival and Permadeath game modes where material stacks are limited to 250/500, so a full stack of Cobalt can only bring ~80,000 Units vs ~7.5M Units for a stack of Wiring Looms.