All content is accurate for 3.67 Frontiers.
The Cartographer on Space Stations will supply Planetary Charts for specific buildings. Using these charts will mark a site on your exosuit's HUD.
Collect Navigation Data from the beacons outside planetary buildings. Exchange this data with the Cartographer for additional maps. The Cartographer will also charts for nanites.
larger buildings create detectable signals, either through direct transmission or via their radar signature. When exploring on foot, use the Analysis Visor to search for nearby buildings, or build (Key Z) a Signal Booster to mark the closest structure to your position.
Specialist navigation data reveals the location of Data Pods, which contain powerful Exosuit Upgrades. These should be decoded in a Signal Booster.